Session 2.1 - PEER Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

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A Framework for Performance-based Earthquake Engineering

G.G. Deierlein, H. Krawinkler and C.A. Cornell

Efforts are underway in Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research center to develop a performance-based earthquake engineering methodology for buildings and bridges. The performance assessment process is described through four generalized variables that characterize information from the relevant scientific and engineering disciplines in a logical and consistent manner. The process begins with defining a ground motion Intensity Measure, which is often described by a seismic hazard curve for spectral acceleration or other quantities. Next, nonlinear computer simulations are used to determine response of a facility to earthquake ground motions. Output from these simulations is defined in terms of Engineering Demand Parameters, which may consist of interstory drifts, floor accelerations, local ductility demands, or other engineering response quantities. Engineering Demand Parameters are then related to Damage Measures, which describe the physical damage to the structure and its components. Damage states are delineated by their consequences or impact on Decision Variables, consisting of dollar losses (repair and restoration costs), downtime, and casualty rates. A key aspect of the methodology is consistent representation and tracking of uncertainties in predicting performance metrics that are relevant to decision making for seismic risk mitigation.

Paper 140: [Read]


Collapse Performance Prediction of RC Frame Structures

J.P. Moehle and K.J. Elwood

Reinforced concrete frames with light transverse reinforcement may be susceptible to shear and subsequent axial load failures. An experimental program examined the behaviour of two half-scale, one-story frames with axial loads representative of those expected for the lower story of a seven-story building. The frames were subjected to unidirectional simulated earthquake motions applied at the base. Shear failures of an interior column led to axial load failure and redistribution of internal forces to adjacent framing components. Analytical models are proposed to identify onset of shear and axial failure. The models are incorporated in a computer framework for numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamic response under earthquake base motion.

Paper 154: [Read][Print]

Keywords: collapse, columns, reinforced concrete, shear


Building Specific Loss Estimation for Performance Based Design

E. Miranda and H. Aslani

The main goal of performance-based design (PBD) is to design structures that will meet the performance expectations of their owners. This work describes research efforts of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center aimed at describing the seismic performance of buildings as a continuum and in term of economic losses. Specifically, this research provides three measures of performance expressed in terms of economic losses: (a) expected loss in the building as a function of ground motion intensity; (b) expected annual loss; (c) annual frequency of exceedance of a given loss level. These measures of performance provide quantitative information to help owners, lenders, insurers and other interested parties make informed decisions regarding their buildings. In the proposed approach, the total loss in a building due to physical damage is treated as a random variable which is computed as the sum of the losses in individual structural and non-structural components. Economic losses are computed using a fully probabilistic approach that permits the explicit incorporation of uncertainties in the seismic hazard at the site, in the response of the structure, on the fragility of individual structural and non-structural components, and on the costs associated with the repairs or replacement of individual building components. Physical damage is estimated by combining building response parameters such as interstory drift ratio or peak floor acceleration computed with incremental dynamic analyses with component fragility functions. The latter functions describe the probability of individual building components of being in various damage states as a function of structural demand parameters. Results from an existing non-ductile seven-story reinforced concrete building are presented.

Paper 141: [Read][Print]

Keywords: performance-based design, loss estimation, probabilistic analysis, punching failure


Barriers to Adoption and Implementation of PBEE Innovations

P. May

Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) has gained prominence in the engineering community as an approach that allows for more transparent choices about desired earthquake performance of engineered structures. Although code provisions containing performance-based concepts have been adopted in several countries, rigorous methods and techniques for performance-based earthquake engineering are still largely on the drawing board. For PBEE innovations to gain widespread currency a number technical and decision-related challenges must be addressed. These challenges are arguably more daunting than those previously confronting seismic isolation or load and resistance factor design. The lessons reviewed here from those experiences suggest that the key barriers and steps to overcoming them for PBEE are: (1) overcoming uncertainty about the PBEE methodology and its benefits; (2) addressing concerns about the costs of employing the methodology; (3) addressing the complexity of the methodology; (4) legitimizing the methodology; (5) establishing a comparative advantage; and (6) facilitating early adoption.

Paper 142: [Read][Print]

Keywords: performance-based earthquake engineering, implementation, decision-making


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